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white phosphorus gaza

'I went to put it out, but another one landed on Mayar, my baby daughter. White Phosphorus Use in Gaza White phosphorus is a chemical substance dispersed in artillery shells, bombs, rockets, or mortars, used primarily … Other shells were … On Tuesday 13 January Israeli forces attacked Khoza’a, a small rural community east of Khan Yunis in the south of the Gaza Strip. White phosphorus in Gaza: the victims Ayman al Najar, 13, tells how he lost his sister, grandfather and cousin in a bomb attack on 14 January in Khoza'a, southern Gaza. White phosphorous is like napalm: one resident of Gaza described his daughter literally melting before his eyes when she was hit by the stuff during Israeli attacks. Ann Surg 174:779-784.; Eldad A. Simon GA. 1991. Footage released also show the characteristic images of shelling in neighborhoods with WP, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UVY4NUKowzg, http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2009/01/200911114222894141.html, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vq-b_40IKfs, On January 12, 2009, Human Rights Watch issued a report demanding Israel stop using WP, (http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/01/10/israel-stop-unlawful-use-white-phosphorus-gaza). Gaza phosphorus casualties relive Israel's three-week war Special Report: Tim Butcher in Gaza City argues why the true story about Israel's use of phosphorus shells may never emerge. When burning particles of WP attach quickly remove all clothing affected to prevent skin contact. Protocol III of the convention sets out prohibitions against use of incendiary weapons such as WP (Israel did not sign the protocol). White phosphorus munitions were used extensively in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in First Chechen War and Second Chechen War. (iii) The Geneva Conventions, this Convention and its relevant annexed Protocols are equally binding upon all parties to the conflict. Donetsk People's Republic. The 71-pages-long Human Rights Watch (HRW) report, entitled “Rain of Fire: Israel’s Unlawful Use of White Phosphorous in Gaza,” states that even before the group’s researchers were able to enter Gaza, they had watched from adjacent perimeter areas in Israel as white phosphorus bombs exploded in the air over densely-packed residential areas in the Gaza Strip. WP can be used as an aid in target location and navigation. Israel's military fired white phosphorus over crowded areas of Gaza repeatedly and indiscriminately in its three-week war, killing and injuring civilians and committing war crimes, Human Rights Watch said today. Egypt pushes Gaza … Its civilian uses include production of phosphoric acid and phosphate based fertilizers. We fired ‘shake and bake’ missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out.' (TF 2-2 IN FSE AAR: Indirect Fires in the Battle of Fallujah, By Captain James T. Cobb, First Lieutenant Christopher A. LaCour and Sergeant First Class William H. Hight, Field Artillery, March-April 2005, pp. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of ARIJ & LRC and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. During Israel's three-week-long offensive on Gaza launched on 27 December, the Israeli army used internationally banned weapons according to foreign military and medical experts. The same spokesperson explained that 'One technique is to fire a white phosphorus round into the position because the combined effects of the fire and smoke—and in some case the terror brought about by the explosion on the ground—will drive them out of the holes so that you can kill them with high explosives.' ()WP use is legal for purposes such as illumination and obscuring smoke, and the Chemical Weapons Convention does not list WP in its schedules of chemical weapons.Witnesses and analysis of the battlefield in Falluja revealed to Italian filmakers significant effects on the civilian population. http://www.ccwtreaty.com/KeyDocs/ccwtreatytext.htm, http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/NORM/4F63DC0452DC95BEC1256402003FD28B?OpenDocument, http://www.ccwtreaty.com/KeyDocs/protocol3.html, The Geopolitical Status of Qalqiliya Governorate, Olive Harvest Season in Palestine: less land to harvest, less olive to pluck, Deir Jarir & Silwad: Two Palestinian villages Hammered by the Israeli Occupation, ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF ISRAELI MOVEMENT RESTRICTIONS ON THE MOBILITY OF PEOPLE AND GOODS IN THE WEST BANK 2019, Only Proper Disengagement is the Guarantee of Peace, Increasing Attacks in Jerusalem during the month of October 2011, Saplings and reservoirs are threatened with destruction under the pretext of preserving archaeology, بذريعة أنها منطقة أثرية .. الاحتلال يخطر بإزالة غراس وخزانات للمياه في بلدة الزاوية / محافظة سلفيت, الاحتلال يهدم منشأة صناعية في واد قبون شمال الخليل, Israel to lead expansion in five settlements in the oPt, The Israeli occupation attempts at Judaizing the Tulkarm archeological site of Deir Samara, Al-Khas and Al Nu’man villages suffocated by the Israeli colonization. Hamza Abu Eltarabesh Gaza Strip 16 February 2016. Israel initially denied having used … Azerbaijan and Armenia accused each other Wednesday of using weapons containing white phosphorus during weeks of recent fighting for control of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region. Ghada Abu Halima, 21, who was gravely injured by IDF white phosphorus in Gaza. It worked well with the Israeli media, which anyway doesn’t take much interest in WP is a colorless to yellow translucent wax-like substance with a pungent, garlic-like smell. Five days later his wounds still will not heal To watch the movie click here To watch the movie click here We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes when we could not get effects on them with HE (High Explosive) Rounds. The Israeli Government denies accusations of using white phosphorus but what is our proof that they are certainly not using this or if they are, it does not violate the Chemical Weapons Convention? The IDF used white phosphorus in its attack on the Gaza Strip. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton greets employees as she arrives for her first day at the State Department in Washington, January 22, 2009. The hospital, attacked on January 12th with a chemical bomb that may well be white phosphorus and which set fire to the roof, and whose 4 different buildings were shelled intensely on January… Read More the white phosphorous bombed and machine-gunned Wafa rehabilitation hospital. Razia was rushed to a local Afghan army base, which could do little to help. It is used against vehicles, petroleum, oils and lubricants (POL) and ammunition storage areas, and enemy observers. On one occasion during the conflict, the shells set ablaze a UN school where civilians were seeking shelter. Human Rights Watch report claims Israel committed war crimes in its use of air-burst white phosphorus artillery shells. In: Tietz NW, ed. His wife was severely burnt. Parts Protocol III relevantb to use of WP in Gaza include these: 'Concentration of civilians' means any concentration of civilians, be it permanent or temporary, such as in inhabited parts of cities, or inhabited towns or villages, or as in camps or columns of refugees or evacuees, or groups of nomads. "When the phosphorus comes in contact with living tissue it … It was like a block of fire, a piece of plastic on fire. Israel denied using WP at first, but admitted to using it in Gaza under media pressure. The Applied Research Institute – Jerusalem. In the period 2008-2014, Zionist settler colonialists launched three aggressive wars against the Palestinians of the Gaza Strip: (1) Dec 2008-Jan 2009, (2) 14 Nov 2012, and (3) July-August 2014. level 2 CiD7707 (b) Where the High Contracting Party is not a party to Additional Protocol 1 and an authority of the type referred to in subparagraph (a) above accepts and applies the obligations of the Geneva Conventions and of this Convention and the relevant annexed Protocols in relation to that conflict. Human Rights Watch found 24 spent white phosphorus shells in Gaza, all from the same batch made in a US ammunition factory in 1989 by Thiokol Aerospace. There are scattered studies on effects of WP and WP Smoke on renal, circulatory, hepatic, and musculoskeletal systems (see http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp103-c2.pdf ). Article 2. Gaza into Israel contained white phosphorus We all know that the United States is backing them up and that their military consider it to be a very effective and versatile munition. When WP burns in the air in conditions of high oxygen, it generates smoke with an average aerosol mass concentration between 2,500 and 3,000 mg/m3, with the major components being polyphosphates, phosphine, and elemental phosphorus (Van Voris P, Cataldo DA, Ligotke MW, et al. It said the Israeli military used white phosphorus in a "deliberate or reckless" way. Loay Subuh, blinded at age 9 by phosphorus bomb, wants to be example of steadfastness for others. Other shells were photographed during the war with markings showing they were made in the Pine Bluff Arsenal, also in America, in 1991. White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. Burns 17:198-200.; cited in CDC document http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp103-c2.pdf). 1928. The form used by the military is highly energetic (active) and ignites once it is exposed to oxygen. It must be used in a way that distinguishes between combatants and civilians and cannot be used to target civilians. The Israeli military has defended its conduct in Gaza in the face of mounting allegations of serious violations of international law and said its soldiers did not intentionally target civilians. UN staff made repeated telephone calls to the Israeli military asking them to stop but, at about 10am, six shells hit the compound, three of which contained white phosphorus. During these aggressive wars, the Israeli military used a number of American-made forbidden weapons: White Phosphorus, GBU-39 Shells, DIME bombs, Flechette Shells, Vacuum bombs, and […] White Phosphorus can be used to destroy the enemy's equipment or to limit his vision. White Phosphorus (P4) is a waxy fat soluble colorless or slightly yellow solid with a garlic smell that is not naturally occurring but is produced in the laboratory. Parts Protocol III relevantb to use of WP in Gaza include these: Article 1: 'Incendiary weapon' means any weapon or munition which is primarily designed to set fire to objects or to cause burn injury to persons through the action of flame, heat, or combination thereof, produced by a chemical reaction of a substance delivered on the target. Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington.). (see documentary ), At one point WP was used in rat poison and in fireworks but modern products do not have it because of potential health hazards. 1987. Julia Gillard, the Acting Prime Minister, angered Palestinian supporters over her refusal to condemn Israel's bombing campaign in which white phosphorus was used. On the same day, at about 7.30am, Israeli artillery shells began falling near the main compound of the UN Relief and Works Agency in Gaza City, where 700 civilians were sheltering. WP substance is now known to cause what is known as phossy jaws (a degenerative condition affecting the soft tissue, bones, and teeth of the oral cavity) which has resulted in deaths due to secondary septicemias (Ward EF. White phosphorous is a member of a class of incendiary weapons that includes such things as napalm and thermites but also functions in producing smoke to confuse and destroy the ability of enemy troops to function. During these aggressive wars, the Israeli military used a number of American-made forbidden weapons: White Phosphorus, GBU-39 Shells, DIME bombs, Flechette Shells, Vacuum bombs, and […] It can be fired with fuze time to obtain an airburst. Such an acceptance and application shall have in relation to that conflict the following effects: (i) The Geneva Conventions and this Convention and its relevant annexed Protocols are brought into force for the parties to the conflict with immediate effect; (ii) The said authority assumes the same rights and obligations as those which have been assumed by a High Contracting Party to the Geneva Conven-tions, this Convention and its relevant annexed Protocols; and. When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames, and probably also ignite the highly flammable carbon disulfide fumes. The white phosphorus landed next to some fuel trucks and caused a large fire which destroyed tons of humanitarian aid. Human Rights Watch says Israel has shot air bursts artillery-fired white phosphorus. Shouldn't it be band or designated as a chemical weapon as to avoid the use of this in war. “The main warehouse was badly damaged by what appeared to be white-phosphorus shells,” Holmes told reporters at a news briefing in New York. The smoke that rose over Gaza five months ago wasn’t white phosphorus, but the goal was the same. He said senior commanders should be held to account. 1935. Eine Phosphorbombe enthält ein Gemisch aus weißem Phosphor und Kautschuk und wird als Brandbombe und als Nebelkampfstoff eingesetzt. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 10:314-330.). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4440664.stm, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-forces-used-chemical-weapon-in-iraq-515551.html, http://www.rainews24.rai.it/ran24/inchiesta/en/video.asp, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp103-c2.pdf, http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/asection/la-fg-phosphorus12-2009jan12,0,2138761.story, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/01/10/israel-stop-unlawful-use-white-phosphorus-gaza. Acute (5-30 minute) exposures to WP smoke caused deaths in experimental rats, mice, guinea pigs, and goats at concentrations of orthophosphoric acid and phosphorus pentoxide well below those that occur in military usage (Brown BJ, Affleck GE, Ferrand RL, et al.. 1980. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon will present his report on the Gaza war to the UN General Assembly this week. White phosphorus has, however, been used as a weapon against civilians during this conflict... by HAMAS. 11 Jan 2009. How a war criminal can veto aid to Gaza . Israel using white phosphorus in Gaza. The Israeli prime minister, Ehud Olmert, said at the time that "Hamas fired from the UNRWA site". However, its use is regulated even by customary international law. Gaza phosphorus casualties relive Israel's three-week war Special Report: Tim Butcher in Gaza City argues why the true story about Israel's use of phosphorus shells may never emerge. That same year, Israeli forces launched artillery shells containing white phosphorus in the northern part of the besieged Gaza Strip during the 2009 war with Hamas. "Based on the findings at this stage it is already possible to conclude that the IDF's use of smoke shells was in accordance with international law," it said. For its use alone Israeli higher ups should have been in the dock at the Hague. White Phosphorus and its use in Gaza Press TV Images of WP use in Gaza White Phosphorus (P4) is a waxy fat soluble colorless or slightly yellow solid with a garlic smell that is not naturally occurring but is produced in the laboratory. Around 200 of these shells were fired in the northern Gaza Strip … The group said it found no evidence that Hamas fighters used Palestinian civilians as human shields - a key Israeli claim - in the area at the time of the attacks it researched. Israel used American-made white phosphorus shells in populated areas across the Gaza Strip. British soldiers also made extensive use of white phosphorus grenades during the Falklands War to clear out Argentinepositions as the peaty soil they were constructed on tended to lessen the impact of fr… 'Height of burst' calculations over an image of Rafah, Gaza (Iyad El … 190, Project A 5.2-l.). Report No. "It fired white phosphorus repeatedly over densely populated areas, even when its troops weren't in the area and safe smoke shells were available. “Human rights” organizations, the press, and Palestinians are conflating—mixing together—a smoke shell and a munition. WP use is legal for purposes such as illumination and obscuring smoke, and the Chemical Weapons Convention does not list WP in its schedules of chemical weapons. …,Israel's exclusions in signing: )Protocol III of the convention sets out prohibitions against use of incendiary weapons such as WP (Israel did not sign the protocol). Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of Army smokes in the aersol wind tunnel. Sudden death after phosphorus burns: experimental observations of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and electrocardiographic abnormalities following production of a standard white phosphorus burn. Among the places worst affected by the use of white phosphorus was the UNRWA compound in Gaza City, at which Israeli forces fired three white phosphorus shells on 15 January. (Text from http://www.ccwtreaty.com/KeyDocs/ccwtreatytext.htm, Specially in … In one case, witnesses described how a white phosphorus shell hit a car in Tel al-Hawa, in south-eastern Gaza City, killing a bank manager, his wife and two of their children on 15 January. Human rights groups say Israel is indiscriminately using white phosphorus in Gaza's densely populated areas. Initially the US forces claimed that they used WP just 'to illuminate enemy positions at night, not [directed] at enemy fighters' but and sent mixed signals about whether it considers it an incendiary devise or not and whether insurgents are targeted by the devise or it is merely used as a spectacular light and smoke devise (http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2005/November/20051201140216mvyelwarc0.787594.html ). Patients who survive for more than a week usually exhibit significant changes in fat and protein metabolism (including fatty degeneration) and severe jaundice (Blanke RV. 23-28). Burns should be covered with moist saline-soaked dressing to prevent inflammation. The acute effects of single exposures to white phosphorus smoke in rats and guinea pigs. The Israeli army has insisted white phosphorus shells were only used to provide smoke screens for their advancing ground troops. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/wp.htm). The US used WP in its wars from Vietnam to Iraq and has defended such use as legitimate. When used as an incendiary weapon it works directly against personnel producing severe physical and psychological impacts and also destroys equipment of targeted troops. Yousef Al-Helou reports from the Gaza Strip. WP was used to 'flush' insurgents out to kill them using other munitions: 'WP proved to be an effective and versatile munition. Cobalah menonton video ini di www.youtube.com, atau aktifkan JavaScript jika dinonaktifkan pada browser Anda. “USsourced white phosphorus shells – a chemical weapon that causes severe burning right down to the bone – were used by Israeli forces against Palestinians in Gaza … The third health effect is in the persistence of particles of WP in the environment . Tonight the Israeli military said its investigation into the use of white phosphorous was still under way, but insisted its use of what it called 155mm "smoke shells" was legal. The Israeli Government denies accusations of using white phosphorus but what is our proof that they are certainly not using this or if they are, it does not violate the Chemical Weapons Convention? Admitted to using it in Gaza Strip ( POL ) and ignites once is... Held to account Kapisa province hemorrhages in the lungs of effected animals to... Claim that smoke shells and a munition period of time because of copper toxicity fire, a piece plastic. 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