These variations are due to differences in the past karma performed by each of us during our past lives. For example, our skin, hair, nails, teeth, bones, and flesh all belong to the earth element. Later, as Buddhism developed and spread to a variety of cultures, its religous art came to represent the Buddha, boddhisatvas, and gods in rich figurative imagery. The law may be just and fair, but there are certain privileged people who have the power to manipulate the law. Though we are all human beings, we nonetheless have individual differences, such as being intelligent or foolish, virtuous or unruly, rich or poor, or being born into noble or humble circumstances. Thus, each of these is relative and empty. Conversely, those who do many unwholesome deeds may feel a heavy burden and consider life hopeless, but if they work hard to change their karma there will come a time when all their “debts” are paid off. Without emptiness, all phenomena would not exist. No matter much we have saved in the past, if we keep withdrawing without making any deposits eventually our bank account will be empty. Where did this all come from? In the opinion of other religions, no matter how pious their disciples are, they are ever the followers of their Supreme Being and could never ascend to the position that the Being enjoys. Individual karma differs from collective karma in that it only affects the individual. If a teaching fails to pass the three Dharma seals, it is not a true teaching. As an umbrella term, karma can also be used to refer to not only one’s intentional actions, but also the responses to and effects of these actions. They go through the process of changes and destruction under complicated factors and the flow of existence and non-existence continuously without a permanent entity. The Buddha was a charismatic leader who founded a distinctive religious community based on his unique teachings. According to Hinduism, all living beings, including animals, birds, insects, and other creatures, possess souls. Weighed karma means that if a person has performed both wholesome and unwholesome karma; whichever is heavier will manifest first. Unwholesome karma are actions that harm others. It is just a matter of time. If even a single one of these causes and conditions was lacking, it would not be possible. Examples of these kinds of feeling are those caused by the passing of time, the shortness of life, and the impermanence of all phenomena. Let us now consider the human body, the entity that we tend to regard as “I.” From the moment of birth, and continuing throughout the decades of a person’s lifetime, the human body is perpetually undergoing the physiological changes of birth and death as it grows, matures, and ages. The second is the strength of the conditions necessary to bring about the effect. From this, we can understand that causes and conditions are interdependent and interrelated. There are three primary principles of dependent origination: No phenomena can exist without suitable causes and conditions. One is that it is … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It cannot be analyzed using scientific techniques, nor can it be clarified by the metaphysics of philosophy. His face was elongated with a protruding head called the Ushnisha, well formed nose, Buddha’s ears were long, and hair was fine, black with soft curls. We can actually recognize emptiness by observing existence. Karma is inevitable. Buddha then taught people not to worship him as a god. When we examine religions, we often find that they might have different interpretations of the same important beliefs, thus leading to the establishment of different currents. These latter two forces are called collective karma. Suffering, as defined before, comes from life, as sickness, loneliness, old age, or just a general feeling of life not being what it … Next, I will introduce the idea of “emptiness.” This does not mean that Buddhists don’t believe in anything; on the contrary, emptiness helps explain the Buddhist view on the essence of all existence. He may be guided by his recollective karma in a similar fashion. People need to understand that most things in life do not come free. Life will only continue if certain conditions are present, such as food provided by farmers, and other necessities made by workers and sold by merchants. What are they? The development of Buddhism also led to different interpretations. Truth cannot be modified via debates and need not be described in words. The soybean is a seed, the main cause. They are earth, water, fire and wind. All phenomena in the universe arise and cease from moment to moment. Dependent origination is another critical Buddhist idea which encompasses all existence. The body and the mind together are made up of the five aggregates: form, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness. The only thing that can be done is to do more good deeds to generate positive conditions. We will no longer be attached; no matter where we are, we will be liberated. For example, there is a lot of empty space in the human body. We do not have a place for you to sit.”, Su Dongpo replied immediately, “Master, if there is no seat, why don’t you lend me your four great elements and five aggregates to use as my meditation seat?”, Chan Master Foyin said, “I have a question for you. This is the way it has always been, it will inevitably occur in this way, and it is so universally. If the seeds are not provided with the right conditions for growth, then they will not grow. Dependent origination and emptiness affirm one another. Sariputra asked him respectfully, “Who are you? There is an end to suffering. In fact, emptiness is a most profound and wonderful philosophy. What does he teach you?”, Asvajit replied, “All phenomena arise due to causes and conditions; all phenomena cease due to causes and conditions. How can we come to know emptiness? The collective behavior of many beings will produce a very strong karmic effect that determines the course of life, history, and the universe. If a bed is not empty, then it cannot hold anything. These effects cannot be removed by doing good deeds. It is therefore understood that everything in the universe is impermanent (Anicca), unreal, false, temporary just as what the Diamond Sutra says, Everything with form is unreal. Actually, nirvana is “without birth or death.” Nirvana is the end of clinging, the elimination of the attachment to the “self,” and the concept that things are real. In contrast, a homeless person shivering in the cold hopes that the snow will soon stop; otherwise, he may not be able to make it through the night. It has no preference for one thing over another. If living beings practice the Dharma and put an end to these defilements, then they will all be liberated and thus attain nirvana. In Hinduism, attaining the highest life is a process of removing the bodily distractions from life, allowing one to eventually understand the Brahma nature within. There are no extant representations of the Buddha represented in artistic form until roughly the 2nd century CE, partly due to the prominence of aniconism in the earliest extant period of Buddhist devotional statuary and bas reliefs. All phenomena are made up of many component parts. Unwholesome karma created by the mind includes greed, anger, and ignorance. Karmic effects ripen at different times according to two different factors. The eyes of the Buddha are claimed to have been wide and bluish in color. The relevance of this definition is the way it approaches most of the characteristics of the majority of religions around the world. All realities we have caught sight of or touched are only the combination of changing condition. Everything in the universe has a name, but these names are non-substantial, and thus are empty. The Atman is eternal, indestructible, infinite, without qualities and imperfections. This is the way a Buddhist develops faith and respect toward Sakyamuni Buddha. No matter how different things are, they will eventually become equal in the end. Someone may ask, “Did Sakyamuni Buddha still feel the effects of unwholesome karma after he became fully enlightened?” The answer is yes. Those who were generous in their previous lives will become rich, while those who have killed others will consequently have a short lifespan. I would like to describe how emptiness interrelates with other Buddhist concepts and provides descriptions and examples of how the concept of emptiness is viewed in daily life: In Mahayana Buddhism, emptiness means infinity, not nothingness. Wholesome and unwholesome karma also do not “cancel each other out.” Unwholesome karma will produce unwholesome effects. It is very difficult to say, because there is no beginning and no end. All conditioned phenomena are impermanent in two ways: first, because they are in a constant state of flux as they flow from the past, to the present, to the future, and secondly because they arise due to causes and conditions and disperse due to causes and conditions. If you can give me a satisfactory answer, I will let you use me as your seat. Human life has a lot of suffering. We may say that the speed of an automobile is very fast, but it is slow when compared with the speed of an airplane. In this same way, all phenomena arise from causes and conditions. Major global religions, other than Buddhism, all hold the belief that a supernatural being who has created the world is in control of the bliss and disaster of mankind. Karmic effects that manifest at the time of death can be divided into weighed karma, habitual karma, and recollective karma. Some people misunderstand the meaning of emptiness, and interpret it as meaning that Buddhists must give up everything. Emptiness is immense. According to dependent origination, all phenomena arise from emptiness. Unwholesome karma created by speech includes lying, flattery, duplicity, and harsh speech. All phenomena are formations of the four great elements. It is the end of defilement and the hindrance of worldly knowledge. As an umbrella term, karma can also be used to refer to not only one’s intentional actions, but also the responses to and effects of these actions. Tibetan Buddhism. 4) Nirvana … Someone needs to invite me, I must be available, the venue must be open, and the audience must be interested enough to come. Emptiness can be known through the relative nature of phenomena. The merit from our wholesome deeds accumulates like a bank account. The future is in our own hands, for we are free to decide which direction we want to go. The Explanation of the Treatise on the Awakening of Faith in Mahayana lists ten definitions of emptiness. I’ve gone bankrupt!” or “I have been bowing to the Buddha and reciting Amitabha Buddha’s name for a long time, yet my health has not improved!” Such people do not understand karma. Earth has the property of solidity, water has the property of fluidity, fire has the property of heat, and wind has the property of mobility. Karma is one of the most fundamental teachings of Buddhism. Nichiren belief and practice consists of three main elements: daimoku; worship of the honzon; and kaidan, which are collectively known as the "three great secret laws." Things around us are built on a set of interdependent relations which will give rise to the arising, continuity and cessation of existence. It is a truth of the universe that cannot be found in secular teachings. Karma can also be divided into the categories of collective and individual karma: the karma performed by a single person will give rise to a certain force; the karma performed by hundreds and thousands of people will give rise to a greater force; the karma performed by millions and billions of people will give rise to an even greater force. The karma of body, speech, and mind creates happiness in our lives as well as sorrow. Our advanced technology can create many things, but it still cannot create life itself. Even feelings that are neither pleasant nor painful can bring us suffering because of change. The earliest Buddhist art, which originated in India, was mostly symbolic and avoided figurative depictions of the Buddha. Karmais a Sanskrit word that means “action” or “deed.” Any intentional physical, verbal, or mental action is karma. If we add fresh water, similar to wholesome karma, the salt water becomes diluted so that it tastes less salty. Even though he does wholesome deeds in this life, they may not ripen and produce karmic effects until the next life. The absence of an independent self is the foundation of the Middle Way; it is the fundamental teaching of Buddhism. According to Buddhism, it is temporary and illusory, as it comes into existence because of dependent origination. “All conditioned phenomena” is really another way of saying “everything in the world.” According to Buddhism, nothing is permanent. Water is then added to the clay in order to make the clay malleable. Thus, with this clearer understanding of karma, we can effectively work toward happiness. Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism are some of the major world religions, which all have …show more content… But with careful analysis, we can see that each societal moment cannot arise without the society of the previous moment. In particular, the "32 signs of a Great Man" are described throughout the Pali Canon, and these are believed to have formed the basis All of these continue on like a flowing river. If one can truly understand emptiness, one can understand the entirety of Buddhism. During the time of the Buddha, there was a brahman named Sariputra. If you want to be healthy, you need to pay attention to what you eat, get an adequate amount of exercise and maintain good hygiene. Sariputra was overjoyed when he heard this. How then can the human body be in control? However, during the same disaster, each person may be affected differently, due to his or her own individual karma. Suddenly, he remembers that he has a friend on the street that leads west, so he continues in a westerly direction. With the cessation of this (cause), that (cause) ceases. Karma can give us hope that the future can be bright. What are the defining characteristics of being Buddhist? For the soul, the body is a mere cover or clothing, which it discards at the time of death. Su Dongpo could not give him an answer. Defilement is bondage. Thorough examination and awareness of these marks help us abandon the grasping and clinging that bind us. Those beings who have attained great degrees of meditative concentration may also be reborn in the form or formless realms, where beings are constantly absorbed in states of meditative bliss. Wholesome karmic effects provide us with blessings in our lives and lead to rebirth in the higher realms. Mahayana Buddhism, prevalent in East Asia (China, Korea, and Japan), in which the Buddha is godlike and other enlightened beings called bodhisattvas help others achieve enlightenment. Those who do not understand karma may see kind people suffer misfortune and wicked people live comfortably and think that karma must not exist. The way to end suffering is to follow the Middle Path. People also exist due to causes and conditions. For example, the clock on the wall runs continuously from one o’clock to twelve o’clock and from twelve o’clock back to one o’clock. Emptiness cannot be clung to, caught, or held. However, it does not matter how reasonable one may be, the deed committed may still be against the law. Different people with different states of mind will have unique views of the same thing or event. Any actions that do not have a moral component, which cannot be said to be good or bad, are neutral karma. The world we live today is ever changing, experiencing a sequence of Formation, Existence, Destruction and Void. Before the Buddha renounced secular life, he was already very well versed in the philosophy of the four Vedas, the classical Indian five sciences (composition, mathematics, medicine, logic, and philosophy), and the many practices and meditation techniques of the various mendicant religions. If the nose, mouth, and stomach were not empty, how could we survive? Islam has Sunni and Shiite groups. Liberation is nirvana. Because without emptiness, there can be no existence. If the universe is not empty, then human life cannot exist. That is why it is important to do wholesome deeds and create positive conditions. Water, soil, sunlight, air, and fertilizer are the necessary secondary conditions. In the flow of time, it is impossible to find an entity isolated from all other entities. In Buddhism, the three marks of existence are three characteristics (Pali: tilakkhaṇa; Sanskrit: त्रिलक्षण, trilakṣaṇa) of all existence and beings, namely impermanence (), non-self and unsatisfactoriness or suffering (). It is simply not possible to explain the meaning of emptiness in just one sentence. Theravada makes two historical claims for itself. Likewise, the chains of greed, anger, and ignorance bind living beings. He had amassed many followers, but though he had been searching for a long time he had yet to realize the truth. This is obvious a proof by the Buddha after his Enlightenment that everyone has the potential to attain Buddhahood. Buddhism lays special emphasis upon order and discipline in the practice of Dhamma. Karmic effects are not bestowed upon us by deities or gods, nor is punishment inflicted upon us by “King Yama.”. So we can see that the “self” as we have defined it earlier does not exist. Emptiness is motionless. The three Dharma seals are: All conditioned phenomena are impermanent, all phenomena are without an independent self, and nirvana is perfect tranquility. He later called the truth that he realized that night “dependent origination.” Dependent origination is the Buddhist doctrine that all phenomena arise due to causes and conditions. Once, Su Dongpo went to visit the Chan master when he was teaching the Dharma. Karma can also be divided according to the time that it’s effects reach fruition. Emptiness can be known through the continuous succession of events. It is sometimes called Southern Buddhism and is one of the largest subdivisions of Buddhism. Nyigma, or the ancient ones, is the oldest school, and was founded by Padmasambhava. Once something is done, wholesome or unwholesome, the seeds of karma are stored in the alaya consciousness and will one day produce effects when the conditions are right. ©HsingYun.org Copyright. 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